With the rise of Irish , German , and Catholic immigrants, the white Protestants of English origin of Louisville started to take matters into their own hands. August 6, , Bloody Monday, happened in Louisville, Kentucky on an election day.
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Protestant members of the Know-Nothing political party attacked German, Irish, and Catholic neighborhoods, assaulting individuals, burning and looting. These riots grew out of the bitter rivalry between the Democrats and the nativist Know-Nothing Party. Multiple street fights raged, leaving 22 to over a people dead, scores injured, and lots of property was destroyed by fire.
Five people were later indicted, but none were convicted, and the victims were never compensated. Louisville had been a major slave market, and shipped many slaves downriver to the Deep South and New Orleans for sale or delivery. Kentucky also had strong trade relations to both the east and western regions, reinforced by a shifting of trade from the rivers to the railroads and Great Lakes. Many Kentucky residents had migrated south to Tennessee and west to Missouri, creating familial ties to those regions.
The state voted against secession and remained loyal to the Union, although there were disputes among numerous residents. Kentucky was a border state during the American Civil War. The state was officially neutral until a new legislature took office on August 5, with strong Union sympathies. The majority of the Commonwealth's citizens also had strong Union sympathies. Grant entered Paducah, Kentucky. On September 7, , the Kentucky State Legislature, angered by the Confederate invasion, ordered the Union flag to be raised over the state capitol in Frankfort , declaring its allegiance with the Union.
In November , during the Russellville Convention , Southern sympathizers attempted to establish an alternative state government with the goal of secession but failed to displace the legitimate government in Frankfort. The Confederates won the bloody Battle of Perryville , but Bragg retreated because he was in an exposed position.
Kentucky stayed under Union control for the remainder of the war. Although Kentucky was a slave state, it had not seceded and was not subject to military occupation during the Reconstruction Period. It was subject to the Freedmen's Bureau oversight of new labor contracts and work to institute free labor. A congressional investigation was undertaken because of issues raised about the propriety of its elected officials. During the election of , ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment was a major political issue.
Kentucky eventually rejected the Thirteenth, Fourteenth , and Fifteenth amendments but had to implement them when they were ratified. Democrats prevailed in the election, and one of their first acts was to repeal the Expatriation Act of , restoring the citizenship of former Confederates. After the war, violence continued in the state. Numerous chapters of the Ku Klux Klan formed as insurgent veterans sought to establish white supremacy by intimidation and violence against freedmen and free blacks. Even after its suppression by the federal government in the early s, between and , the Frankfort Weekly Commonwealth newspaper reported incidents of shooting, lynching , and whipping of blacks by whites.
White documented at least 93 lynching deaths of blacks by whites in Kentucky this period, and thought it more likely that at least had taken place, one-third of the state's total number of lynchings. While northeastern Kentucky had relatively few African Americans, its whites acted to drive them out of many areas. In , whites in the county seat of Warsaw, Gallatin County, Kentucky , initiated a race riot.
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Over a period of more than 10 days in August, a band of more than whites attacked and drove off an estimated Blacks from the county, who fled across the Ohio River. In August , whites attacked and drove off blacks in Kenton, Boone, and Grant counties; some fled to Covington, seeking shelter at the offices of the Freedman's Bureau there. Similar hostile attacks greeted African Americans in western Kentucky, especially Logan and its seat of Russellville. Whites were especially hostile to black veterans. Racial violence increased in the post-Reconstruction period, reaching a height in the s and extending into the early 20th century.
This is when two-thirds of the state's lynchings of blacks occurred, marked by the mass hanging of four black men in Russellville, Kentucky in , and a white mob's killing all seven members of the David Walker family near Hickman, Kentucky in Fulton County in October In an era of violence near Reelfoot Lake related to expansion of cotton culture and the Black Patch Tobacco Wars , these outrages received national coverage by major newspapers. Kentucky became internationally known in the late 19th century for its violent feuds, especially in the eastern Appalachian mountain communities.
The men in extended clans were pitted against each other for decades, often using assassination and arson as weapons, along with ambushes, gunfights, and pre-arranged shootouts. Some of the feuds were continuations of violent local Civil War episodes. Using stereotypes that city folks had developed about Appalachia; they interpreted the feuds as the inevitable product of profound ignorance, poverty, and isolation, and perhaps interbreeding. The leading participants were typically well-to-do local elites with networks of clients who fought on the local level for political power.
During the Gilded Age , the women's suffrage movement took force in Kentucky. Laura Clay , daughter of noted abolitionist Cassius Clay , was the most prominent leader. At the same time a prohibition movement began, which was challenged by the distillers based in the Bluegrass and the saloonkeepers based in the cities.
Kentucky's hemp industry declined as manila became the world's primary source of rope fiber. This led to an increase in tobacco production, which was already the largest cash crop of Kentucky. The first city to start using the Australian secret ballot in the United States was Louisville, Kentucky. The Australian ballot law was introduced by A. Wallace of Louisville, and enacted February 24, The act applied only to the city of Louisville, because the state constitution required viva voce voting at state elections.
The mayor printed the ballots, and candidates had to be nominated by 50 or more voters in order to have their names placed upon the ballot. The blanket form of the ballot was used, with the names of the candidates arranged in alphabetical order according to surnames, but without any political party designations of any kind.
Other changes in statewide voter law were made that increased barriers to voter registration, disenfranchising most African Americans and many poor whites through a combination of poll taxes, subjective literacy tests, and oppressive record keeping. In — German immigrants settled in cities in northern Kentucky, especially Louisville.
The most famous ethnic-German leader in the late 19th century was William Goebel — From his base in Covington , he became a state senator in , fought the railroads, and took control of the state Democratic party in the mids. Goebel's election law took control of vote counting away from local officials and gave it to officials controlled by the Assembly, which the Democrats controlled.
He used that power to be certified as governor in The apparent election of William S. Taylor as governor on the Republican ticket in was an unexpected turn of events. As it became apparent to Taylor's supporters that the committee would decide in favor of Goebel, they raised an armed force. On January 19, , more than 1, armed civilians took possession of the Capitol. For more than two weeks, the United States watched as the Commonwealth of Kentucky slid towards civil war.
The presiding governor declared martial law and activated the official Kentucky militia. On January 30, , Goebel, accompanied by two bodyguards, was shot by a sniper as he approached the Capitol. Though mortally wounded, Goebel was sworn in as Governor of the Commonwealth of Kentucky the next day. He died from his wounds on February 3, For nearly four months after Governor Goebel's death, Kentucky had two officials functioning as the commonwealth's chief executive: Republican Taylor, who insisted he was the governor, and Democrat J.
Beckham , running mate of Governor Goebel, who was sworn in when the latter died. Beckham requested federal aid to determine Kentucky's chief executive. The U. Supreme Court finally reached a decision on May 26, , upholding the Commission's ruling that Goebel was Kentucky's governor. Since his lieutenant governor Beckham had followed Kentucky's line of succession, Beckham was now governor. Immediately following the court's decision, Taylor fled to Indiana.
He was later indicted as one of the conspirators in the assassination. Attempts to extradite him failed, and Taylor remained in Indiana until he died. Realizing how close they came to civil war, Kentucky leaders calmed the voters and worked to finish the decade with less heat and little violence.
The coal industry expanded rapidly in the state around the start of the 20th century and World War I. Many residents left subsistence farming to work in coal mining, particularly in the Appalachian region where large deposits of coal were found and jobs were plentiful. While coal mines provided new jobs, conditions were harsh for workers, and the mining created environmental problems for the land, water and air.
Although violence against blacks declined in the early 20th century compared to the late 19th, it continued especially in rural areas, which were convulsed by other social disruption. Many African Americans left the state for better-paying jobs and education in manufacturing and industrial cities in the Midwest as part of the Great Migration.
Rural whites also moved to industrial cities, such as Pittsburgh, Chicago and Detroit. Like the rest of the country, Kentucky experienced dramatic inflation during the war years. Much infrastructure was created; the state built many roads to accommodate the increasing popularity of the automobile. The war also led to the clear-cutting of thousands of acres of Kentucky timber.
The tobacco and whiskey industries had boom years during the teens, although Prohibition , beginning in , seriously harmed the economy when the Eighteenth Amendment took effect. German citizens had established the beer industry in Kentucky, which already had a liquor industry based on bourbon , and vineyards established in the 18th century in Middle Tennessee. Prohibition resulted in resistance and widespread bootlegging , which continued into the middle of the century. Numerous Eastern Kentucky rural and mountain residents made their own liquor in " moonshine " stills, selling some of it across the state.
In the s, progressives focused their attacks on gambling. The anti-gambling crusade sprang from the religious opposition to machine politics, led by Helm Bruce and the Louisville Churchmen's Federation. The reformers had their greatest support in rural Kentucky, with support from the chapters of the second Ku Klux Klan and Fundamentalist Protestant clergymen.
In its revival after , the KKK supported some general social issues, such as prohibiting gambling, as they promoted themselves as a fraternal organization concerned with people's welfare. In this era, their activities were largely concentrated in midwestern cities such as Detroit and Indianapolis, and western cities in Washington and Oregon.
Congressman Alben W. Barkley became the political spokesman of the anti-gambling group and nearly secured the Democratic gubernatorial nomination in ; he also crusaded against the mining special interests that had so much power in eastern Kentucky. In Barkley was popularly elected to the U. Senate, as he had established his name and attracted support for his positions. Active in the national party, he ran for vice president with incumbent President Harry S.
Truman in In former governor J. Beckham won the Democratic party's nomination as the anti-gambling candidate. Beckham's defeat marked the end of the Progressive movement in Kentucky. Like the rest of the country and much of the world, Kentucky faced great difficulty during the Great Depression , from the late s to early s.
There was widespread unemployment and little economic growth. Unions would eventually be established, and working conditions improved immediately. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal programs resulted in the construction and improvement of a great deal of infrastructure in the state. The construction of roads in rural areas, development of telephone lines, and rural electrification were significant developments. The construction of the Kentucky Dam and its hydroelectric power plant greatly improved the lives of Western Kentuckians. Flood control projects were also built on the Cumberland River and the Mississippi River , which also improved navigability of the rivers.
Decades later, engineers have learned that some of these projects have increased flooding problems, as they increased the flow of rivers and reduced areas of floodplains to absorb the waters. The Democratic Senate primary featured an intense showdown between Barkley, liberal spokesman for the New Deal , and conservative governor Happy Chandler. The governor was a gifted public speaker, combining voice control, emotionalism, and singing with an unusual ability to personalize his speeches.
His ability to remember constituents' names increased his appeal through his campaign speeches. But Barkley's methodical campaigning was bolstered by President Franklin D. Roosevelt 's strong endorsement following federal investment in the state. Farmers, labor unions, and city machines all contributed to Barkley's margin, and the vote affirmed the popularity of the New Deal in Kentucky.
Beginning in January , the Ohio River was in various flood stages for three months. The flood led to river fires when oil tanks in Cincinnati, Ohio were destroyed. Paducah, Owensboro, and other Purchase area cities were devastated. Damages from the flood nationwide totaled twenty million dollars without adjusting for inflation. The federal and state government made extensive flood prevention efforts in the Purchase area, including construction of the distinctive flood wall at Paducah.
World War II demonstrated stimulated industry in Kentucky and other states, making it increasingly important to the economy. Agriculture declined in relative importancey. Fort Knox was expanded, with thousands of new recruits coming to the area. An ordinance plant was built in Louisville. This city became the world's largest producer of artificial rubber. Shipyards at Jeffersonville, Kentucky and elsewhere attracted industrial workers to their numerous skilled jobs.
Louisville's Ford manufacturing center produced almost , Jeeps during the war. The war also led to a greater demand for higher education, as technical skills were more in demand both during the war and afterwards. Sixty-six men from Harrodsburg were prisoners on the Bataan Death March. Edgar Erskine Hume of Frankfort served as the military governor of Rome after its capture by the Allied forces.
Kentucky native Franklin Sousley was one of the men in the photograph showing the raising of the flag at Iwo Jima. As a prisoner of war, Harrodsburg resident John Sadler witnessed the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan. Seven Kentuckians received the Medal of Honor. In the years afterward, federal construction of the Interstate Highway System helped connect even the most remote areas of Kentucky to one another.
Democrat Lawrence W. Wetherby served as governor during — He was considered progressive, solid, and unspectacular.
As lieutenant governor under Earle Clements , he had been out of the limelight. After Clements was elected as a US Senator in , Wetherby succeeded to the office; he was elected to his own gubernatorial term in He emphasized themes of road improvements, and increasing tourism and other economic development.
Wetherby was one of the few Southern governors to implement desegregation in public schools after the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education , which ruled that segregated schools were unconstitutional. Bert T. Combs as the Democratic primary candidate for governor in , but Combs was defeated by Happy Chandler. Agriculture, though still important, was supplanted in many areas by industry, which stimulated urbanization. By , Kentucky had more urban than rural residents. Although decreasing in overall importance, tobacco production remains an important part of the state economy, bolstered by a New Deal legacy that gives financial advantages to holders of tobacco allotments.
Route 23 runs north from Kentucky through Columbus and Toledo, Ohio and to the automotive centers of Michigan. Rather than the standard line that their elementary schools taught "the three Rs" of "Readin', 'Ritin', and 'Rithmetic", Kentucky residents used to say that the three Rs they learned were "Readin', 'Ritin', and Route 23 North". In the postwar years, African Americans in Kentucky pressed for civil rights, as they believed they had earned them with their service during World War II and many other contributions, in addition to rights being provided by the US Constitution.
During the s, as a result of successful local sit-ins during the Civil Rights Movement , the Woolworth's Store in Lexington ended practices of segregation at its lunch counter and in restrooms. In Kentucky's gubernatorial campaign between Republican Louis Broady Nunn and Democrat Ned Breathitt, the subject of civil rights and racial integration was a major campaign issue.
Nunn, on broadcast television, promised Kentuckians that his "first act will be to abolish" the Fair Services Executive Order. The New Republic reported that Nunn ran "the first outright segregationist campaign in Kentucky. Breathitt wound up winning the general election by 13, votes. At the urging of President Lyndon B. After Breathitt was elected Governor of Kentucky, the state civil rights bill was introduced to the General Assembly in It was buried in committee, and was never voted on.
Martin Luther King Jr. In January , Breathitt signed "the most comprehensive civil rights act ever passed by any state south of the Ohio River in the history of this nation. Kentucky's Civil Rights Act ended racial discrimination in bathrooms, restaurants, swimming pools, and other public places throughout the Commonwealth.
Racial discrimination was prohibited in employment and it empowered Kentucky cities to enact local laws against housing discrimination. The legislature repealed all "dead-letter" segregation laws, such as the year-old Day Law, on the recommendation of Rep. The Act authorized the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights to resolve discrimination complaints with enforcement for acts of discrimination.
Breathitt has since said that the civil rights legislation would have passed without him. He thought his opposition to strip mining had more to do with the decline of his political career than his support for civil rights. Two months after Dr. On May 27, , a protest against police brutality, held at Twenty-eighth and Greenwood streets, turned violent after Louisville police came and had their guns drawn when leaving their vehicles. Protesters reacted and violence ensued. Governor Louie B. Nunn called out the National Guard to suppress the violence.
Browder was found with a fish sandwich still clutched in his hand, shot dead by a business owner. Groves was shot in the back, after supposedly looting during the riots. On March 18, , to correct a historical oversight, Kentucky finally ratified the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the U. Constitution, which are also known as the Reconstruction Amendments that provided rights to freedmen and persons of all races, with the signing of House Resolution 75 by Governor Julian Carroll.
Mae Street Kidd , a legislator from Louisville, had campaigned for the state's passage of the three Reconstruction Amendments. Martha Layne Collins served as Kentucky's first woman governor from to She co-chaired the Democratic National Convention in Prior to that, Collins had been a schoolteacher and party worker for the state's Democrats at all levels.
She was first elected to office as lieutenant governor, serving from to In , she defeated Jim Bunning for the governorship. Throughout her public life she emphasized education and economic development; a feminist, she viewed all issues as "women's issues. In June , federal prosecutors revealed that 70 men, mostly from Marion County but also two adjacent counties, Nelson and Washington, were arrested for organizing a marijuana trafficking ring that stretched across the Midwest.
Authorities dubbed them as the " Cornbread Mafia " because members of their syndicate called marijuana, "cornbread". In , Wallace G. The Kentucky legislature passed an amendment allowing two successive terms for the governor's position. Paul E. Patton , a Democrat, was the first governor eligible to succeed himself. Winning a close race in , he benefited from economic good times and succeeded with most of his initiatives and priorities.
After winning reelection by a large margin in , Patton suffered from the state's economic problems. He lost credibility as well from public exposure of an extramarital affair. Near the end of his second term, Patton was accused of abusing his patronage powers. He was criticized for pardoning four former supporters who had been convicted of violating the state's campaign finance laws. In , the state ranked 49th in the percentage of women serving in state or national political offices. The traditional system has favored "old boys" thanks to political elites, incumbency, and long-entrenched political networks.
Democrat Steve Beshear was elected as governor in and for a second term in The state constitution limits governors to two succeeding terms. Kentucky was the first state in the U. In fall , Kentucky's state board of education voted to adopt them Common Core verbatim. Kentucky implemented "Obamacare"—expanded Medicaid and starting Kynect. Right now, , people in Kentucky are uninsured. That's almost one in six Kentuckians.
On April 19, , Kentucky legalized hemp when Governor Steve Beshear refused to sign or veto Senate Bill 50, allowing the state law to go into effect. Beshear had been one of the last obstacles blocking SB50 from becoming law. The Schedule 1 designation was exempted for Kentucky's pilot hemp research projects when the federal Farm Bill a. The Agricultural Act of was passed.
The state believes that production of industrial hemp can benefit its economy. On May 27, , the University of Kentucky planted the second legal hemp crop in Kentucky. The first crop plot was planted earlier in May of the same year at Murray State University , using California seeds.
With these plantings, Kentucky became the first state in America to begin hemp production. The Department of Agriculture is responsible for approving applications. All applicants must submit a business plan, as well as pass a background check to appease the Drug Enforcement Administration DEA.
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Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. August This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Kentucky County, Virginia. See also: Admission to the Union and List of U. See also: History of slavery in Kentucky. Main article: History of Baptists in Kentucky.
Main article: —12 New Madrid earthquakes. Main article: War of Main article: Mexican—American War. Main article: Bloody Monday. See also: History of coal mining in the United States. Main article: Ohio River flood of Further information: Hemp in Kentucky. Kentucky portal. May August KAS Report No. Kentucky Archaeological Survey. Archived from the original PDF on April 13, Barry, ed. Kentucky Archaeology. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. July American Antiquity.
Retrieved May 29, October — December American Anthropologist. New Series. February 17, Kentucky Heritage Council. Archived from the original on June 2, A New History of Kentucky. Retrieved May 30, Boone County Kentucky. Retrieved October 27, Carolina — The Native Americans. The Indian Tribes of North America. Bulletin Genealogical Publishing reprint ed. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Bulletin Washington D. Wilderness Trail. New York: G. Putman's Sons. History of Geography, About. A History of Indiana from Its Exploration to Volume 1.
Indianapolis, Indiana: W. Stewart Co. Retrieved May 31, Memoirs on the Antiquities of Western New York reprint ed. Albany, New York: E. Cherokee Heritage Documentation Center. West Virginia: A History Second ed. A History of Appalachia Paperback ed. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. Stephen, ed. Southern Indian Studies. University of North Carolina Press. The Wilderness Trail. Volume 2. Putnam's Sons. The Planting of Civilization in Western Pennsylvania third ed. University of Pittsburgh Press.
List of historic houses in Kentucky
North American Exploration. Volume 2: A Continent Defined. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. Standard Printing Company. History of Campbell County, Tennessee. New York: The Century Co. Nashville, Tennessee: Grave Distraction. The Expedition of Baron de Longueuil digital ed. Paris, France: Didot. Southern Illinois University Press. Big Bone History.
Kentucky: Historic Houses and Horse Farms
Paris, France: Library of Congress. Morris Book Publishing. The Ohio. Life of Daniel Boone. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. Louisville, Kentucky: John P. The West Virginia Encyclopedia online ed. West Virginia Humanities Council. Virginia Cavalcade. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. Virginia Historical Society. Frontier Kentucky.
List of historic houses in Kentucky - Wikipedia
Oxford University Press. Retrieved October 15, Volume I: Alabama — Louisiana. Retrieved June 1, Filson Club History Quarterly. Mechanicsville, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. Lower Scioto River. Harrison and James C. The Kentucky Encyclopedia. Kentucky Department of Parks. Archived from the original on August 28, Retrieved July 19, The Clarks of Kentucky.
Retrieved June 21, The Indian Frontier, — Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Tennessee Historical Magazine. Nashville, Tennessee: Tennessee Historical Society. Winter American Indian Quarterly. The Life of George Rogers Clark. Indiana Historical Bureau. State of Indiana. Retrieved October 28, February Kentucky Government: Informational Bulletin No. Notre Dame Law Review. Retrieved October 31, Register of the Kentucky Historical Society. Tobacco and Kentucky.
World Digital Library. London: John Arrowsmith. Retrieved July 1, The Kentucky Thoroughbred. American Heritage. Historical Marker in Louisville notes the location of Douglas Park Racetrack, which operated from to Horse racing flourished as a sport in late nineteenth-century America. Nowhere was that more apparent than in Kentucky.
Historical Marker 6 in Lexington notes the location of the first straight quarter-mile horse racing course in Kentucky, which was established years before statehood. Kentucky was the first state settled west of the Appalachian Mountains. Many of…. Historical Marker in Covington notes the historical significance of Latonia Race Track, which sponsored the Latonia Derby for many years. Horseracing, along with baseball, were two of America's favorite spectator sports in the last half….
Historical Marker in Lexington notes the famous thoroughbred named for that Kentucky city. Kentucky has long been associated with horse racing in the United States, and the city of Lexington and the farms surrounding it have produced some of…. Given to the University of Kentucky by the class of , Historical Marker honors Aristides, the winner of the first Kentucky Derby.
In May , an estimated 10, racing fans watched the first running of the Kentucky Derby in Louisville. Historical Marker in Louisville notes the location of the Louisville Cemetery, which was founded by prominent African American citizens in The Louisville Cemetery, near Germantown, holds the remains of many notable individuals from that….
Historical Markers and in Lexington note the many accomplishments of Man-O-War, considered by many to be the greatest thoroughbred ever. In a state where horses have the tendency to become legends, no horse has drawn more historical…. Historical Marker in Greenup County notes the location of Raceland, a horse racing track that was known as the "Million Dollar Oval. Property was…. Historical Marker in Jeffersontown notes the history of recognized jockey and horse trainer Roscoe Goose, who won the Kentucky Derby riding Donerail.
Kentucky is known for producing the horses that win high-stakes races, but in…. Historical Marker in Fayette County notes the many achievements of Wing Commander, a saddle horse who went undefeated in competition for seven years and won more than two hundred championships.
When one thinks of Kentucky horses, thoroughbred…. Organized competitive horse racing in Kentucky was….